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Rowatt: I believe that diversity of religious beliefs and experiences is culturally important. This chapter describes empirical work on the paradoxical association between religion and intolerance. Links between religion and prejudice have been interpreted to suggest that religion can both reduce and exacerbate prejudice. Seven questions for religious prejudice expert Wade Rowatt, PhD. Rowatt can be contacted by email or by phone at (254) 710-2254. Rowatt: A variety of factors contribute to the growth and development of both religiousness and prejudice within a person — including biological processes, maturation, socialization experiences, group identity and cultural learning styles. In The Nature of Prejudice, Allport devoted an entire chapter to the connection between prejudice and religion, noting that "the creeds of the great religions are universalistic, all … belief, faith, and fundamentalism) across all major world religions (e.g. Saroglou, Vassilis That is, when religion is infused into tribal conflicts or wars between nations, the conflicts tend to intensify. World religions often share important core values (e.g., love of neighbor) and contemplative practices that could be building blocks for cooperation and peaceful relations. 4 Prejudice in Psychology and Religion. The mere statement on the part of a religion group that its own beliefs and practices are correct and any contrary beliefs incorrect does not in itself constitute intolerance (ie., ideological intolerance). In this chapter we discuss the ways in which religion might promote or facilitate prejudice, inter-group conflict, and war. It is clear that these investigations, still in progress, tend to confirm demographic and sociological studies that we have also reviewed. Rowatt earned his PhD in experimental psychology from the University of Louisville. Uzarevic, Filip - Thinking, Religion, and Prejudice: An Experimental Test of the Dual-Process Model of Mind, The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 26:4, 360-369, DOI: 10.1080/10508619.2016.1151117 Prejudice in Specific Domains, The Cambridge Handbook of the Psychology of Prejudice, From a religious point of view, if God had thought homosexuality is a sin, he would not have created gay people, If a man has sexual relations with a man as one does with a woman, both of them have done what is detestable. The American Psychological Association, in Washington, D.C., is the largest scientific and professional organization representing psychology in the United States. Managing the threats and opportunities afforded by human sociality, Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, Human threat management systems: Self-protection and disease avoidance, Secular rule of law erodes believers’ political intolerance of atheists, The cultural evolution of prosocial religions, The origin and evolution of religious prosociality, The psychology of religion and coping: Theory, research, practice, Different effects of religion and God on prosociality with the ingroup and outgroup, Principles of religious prosociality: A review and reformulation, Social and Personality Psychology Compass, When Muslims are perceived as a religious threat: Examining the connection between desecration, religious coping, and anti-Muslim attitudes, Cognitive culture: Theoretical and empirical insights into social learning strategies, Does peace have a prayer? Religion, Prejudice, and Authoritarianism: Is RWA a Boon or Bane to the Psychology of Religion? Allport’s Reasoning about purpose and design in nature, The human function compunction: Teleological explanation in adults, Professional physical scientists display tenacious teleological tendencies: Purpose-based reasoning as a cognitive default, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Evolutionary origins of stigmatization: The functions of social exclusion, Can race be erased? Drawing on findings from the study of prejudice and prejudice reduction, we identify a number of mechanisms through which religious communities may influence the intergroup attitudes of their members. Advancing psychology to benefit society and improve lives, © 2020 American Psychological Association. We suggest that the evolved characteristics of religion can contribute in both direct and indirect ways to out-group prejudice, and … Religion plays a vital role in the formation of communities and the interaction of cultures, yet is largely ignored in psychological texts. New Haven: Yale University Press. APA's membership includes more than 122,500 researchers, educators, clinicians, consultants and students. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion Vol 18(1): 90-93. In his words, “[religion] makes and unmakes prejudice.” In the more than six decades since Allport made this observation, social psychologists have tried to pin down the precise relationship between religion and prejudice. A 2012 study by Steven Neuberg of over 190 pairs of groups at 97 sites around the world revealed increased conflict between groups was predicted independently and interactively by the degree to which religion was a part of a group’s everyday life. IQ and global inequality. The effect of mortality salience, compassionate values, and religious fundamentalism on hostility toward out-groups, Patterns and personality correlates of implicit and explicit attitudes toward Christians and Muslims, Associations between religious personality dimensions and implicit homosexual prejudice, Operation of the laws of sympathetic magic in disgust and other domains, Believing, bonding, behaving, and belonging: The Big Four religious dimensions and cultural variation, Identities, values, and religion: A study among Muslim, other immigrant, and native Belgian young adults after the 9/11 attacks, Prosocial behavior and religion: New evidence based on projective measures and peer ratings, Foundations of evolutionary psychology: Ideas, issues, and applications, Prehistoric dangers and contemporary prejudices, Disentangling the belief in God and cognitive rigidity/flexibility components of religiosity to predict racial and value-violating prejudice: A Post-Critical Belief Scale analysis, Social dominance: An intergroup theory of social hierarchy and oppression, Stereotypes of Muslims and support for the war on terror, Current Directions in Psychological Science, Unto others: The evolution and psychology of unselfish behavior, Where God and science meet: How brain and evolutionary studies alter our understanding of religion, Signaling, solidarity, and the sacred: The evolution of religious behavior, Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, Social categorization and intergroup behaviour, Religion and trust: An experimental study, Disgust: A predictor of social conservatism and prejudicial attitudes toward homosexuals, The evolution of war and its cognitive foundations, Institute for Evolutionary Studies Technical Report, Extensional versus intuitive reasoning: The conjunction fallacy in probability judgment, Microbes, mating, and morality: Individual differences in three functional domains of disgust, RESEARCH: Orthodox, humanitarian, and science-inspired belief in relation to prejudice against Jews, Muslims, and ethnic minorities: The content of one's belief does matter, The SAGE handbook of the sociology of religion, Religiosity and attitudes toward lesbians and gay men: A meta-analysis, International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, Reintroducing group selection to the human behavioral sciences, Sexual Prejudice: Advances in Conceptual and Empirical Models, Social Dominance Theory: Explorations in the Psychology of Oppression, The Dual Process Motivational Model of Ideology and Prejudice, Prejudice Against Immigrants in Multicultural Societies, Constructing an understanding of mind: The development of children's social understanding within social interaction. 3 generalizations seem well established concerning the relationship between subjective religion and ethnic prejudice: (a) On the average churchgoers are more prejudiced than nonchurchgoers; (b) the relationship is curvilinear; (c) people with an extrinsic religious orientation are significantly more prejudiced than people with an intrinsic religious orientation. To investigate the salience of religious beliefs in establishing group identity, researchers have also conducted studies looking at religion and prejudice. Wade Rowatt, PhD, is a professor of psychology at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, specializing in psychology of religion. What are the psychological reasons behind these intolerant and sometimes violent acts? Psychologist Gordon W. Allport is famous in part for his studies that attempted to understand what he called the paradox of religion. Linking these bodies of research more systemati-cally could lead to significant advances in under-standing. Prior to performing their research, Burch-Brown and Baker (2016, p. 784) hypothesized that religion has the ability to promote and or reduce prejudicial behavior among followers. Reporters/editors/producers note: The following feature was produced by the American Psychological Association. (a) A 1939 sign in German-occupied Poland warns “No Entrance for Poles!” (b) An African-American male drinks from a designated “colored” water fountain in Oklahoma in 1939 during the era of racial segregation as a practice of discrimination. You may reprint it in its entirety or in part. For example, human minds very quickly categorize individuals into social groups, some of which evoke unjustified fears or disgust reactions. Pichon, Isabelle Broadcasting crimes on air, in print and online makes them appear to the human mind to be more frequent than they actually are and this can affect our attitudes. People intuitively judge immorality as representative of atheists, Reminders of secular authority reduce believers’ distrust of atheists, Do you believe in atheists? Distrust is central to anti-atheist prejudice, The cultural transmission of faith: Why innate intuitions are necessary, but insufficient, to explain religious belief, Sacred bounds on rational resolution of violent political conflict, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Beyond beliefs: Religions bind individuals into moral communities, When morality opposes justice: Conservatives have moral intuitions that liberals may not recognize, Individual differences in sensitivity to disgust: A scale sampling seven domains of disgust elicitors, The evolution of costly displays, cooperation and religion: Credibility enhancing displays and their implications for cultural evolution, The evolution of prestige: Freely conferred deference as a mechanism for enhancing the benefits of cultural transmission, Religious orientation and prejudice: A comparison of racial and sexual attitudes, Some of my best friends”: Intergroup contact, concealable stigma, and heterosexuals’ attitudes toward gay men and lesbians, God is not great: How religion poisons everything, The psychology of religious fundamentalism, Religious fundamentalism, right-wing authoritarianism, and hostility toward homosexuals in non-Christian religious groups, Conservatives are more easily disgusted than liberals, Minimal conditions for real groups: Mere categorization or competitive between category behavior, Representative Research in Social Psychology, Hand of God, mind of man: Punishment and cognition in the evolution of cooperation, The good of wrath: Supernatural punishment and the evolution of cooperation, Facets of right-wing authoritarianism mediate the relationship between religious fundamentalism and attitudes toward Arabs and African Americans. In this view, some “core” element of religion may predict tolerance, while other aspects of religion (or nonreligious constructs that tend to nonetheless correlate with religiosity) might engender outgroup enmity. Burch-Brown and Baker recently explored the connection between religion and prejudiced behavior. 2020. from Prejudice is when individuals have a view and attitude toward people based on the group they belong to (Coutts & et al., 2017). This tradition has a long history, indeed, as William James (1902) noted: The plain fact is that men's minds are built, as has been often said, in water-tight compartments. It’s a tricky question because the self-report measures are susceptible to a variety of influences that could lead one to question their accuracy. Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this book to your organisation's collection. Although major world religions espouse tolerance and love toward others, empirical evidence provides little support for the effectiveness of such religious teachings, and a considerable body of research suggests that, at a general (and simplistic) level, religion and prejudice are positively correlated. From a religious point of view, if God had thought homosexuality is a sin, he would not have created gay people. Rowatt: Expressed religious prejudice is fairly low in most cultures, but covert forms of religious prejudice assessed by implicit measures are likely higher. Much of the research in the field of psychology connecting religion and prejudice began with the work of Gordon Allport and his idea of intrinsic and extrinsic religious motivations. Rowatt: Widely distributed media reports can make infrequent extreme crimes, or weather-related disasters for that matter, seem more common than they actually are. Traditional psychological perspectives on religion and prejudice are summarized, followed by a discussion of religion and prejudice in cross‐cultural and cross‐religious … As Allport (1954) noted more than half a century ago, religion has a paradoxical relationship with prejudice. Religion, prejudice, and authoritarianism: Is RWA a boon or bane to the psychology of religion? Some studies have shown that greater religious attitudes may be significant predictors of … APA recently asked Rowatt the following questions: Rowatt: Like other forms of intolerance and prejudice, religious intolerance and prejudice are likely byproducts of how human brains process perceived threats, subsequent emotional reactions, worldview defense and self-regulation ability. Religious after a fashion, they yet have many other things in them beside their religion, and unholy entanglements and associations inevitably obtain. Of course, when interpreting frequencies like this, it is important to consider the percentages of Jews or Muslims in the larger population. In school systems, prejudice can be seen because of race, religion, and faith. Religious prejudices or Religious intolerance is the intolerance of another's religious beliefs or practices. Part II Citations (0) References (17) ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication. and Rogers, C. A., & Frantz, C. (1962). It first provides a brief overview of seminal research that has formed the backbone of contemporary social psychological study of religion and prejudice. Prejudice and discrimination occur across the globe. We only request that you credit APA as the source. A woman helps feed and clothe poor children in the slums of India: How likely is it that her religion motivated her to do so? Rowatt: A variety of factors contribute to the growth and development of both religiousness and prejudice within a person — including biological processes, maturation, socialization experiences, group identity and cultural learning styles. According to FBI data, from 2000 to 2013, hate crimes against Muslims increased sharply but persons who identified with the Jewish faith tradition were the most hated religious group in the United States during this time period. Even though religions preach love of humanity, decades of psychological research have linked religiousness with prejudice. He suggested that religion can give rise to or diminish prejudice (Allport, 1966). Recent work on religion and prejudice suggests that findings in that area cannot be generalized to religious groups’ attitudes toward other forms of difference, and that besides psychological and social factors, researchers must consider theological and philosophical aspects of religious worldviews in order to define, recognize, and understand religious prejudice. Religion, prejudice, and authoritarianism: Is RWA a boon or bane to the psychology of religion? The study of Islamic ritual and the meaning of wuḍūʾ, God and the government: Testing a compensatory control mechanism for the support of external systems, For God (or) country: The hydraulic relation between government instability and belief in religious sources of control, Function, goals and intention: Children's teleological reasoning about objects, Why are rocks pointy? For one thing, most social psychological studies of religion and prejudice have focused on Christians in North America and Europe since the 1960s; and most have examined either racism from Whites towards Blacks (for review see Hall et al., 2010), or attitudes towards groups perceived as challenging traditional Christian values, such as gays and lesbians, feminists, and atheists; or … Rowatt: My sense is that activity by extremists can increase negative evaluations, distrust or even hatred of people who share similar national or religious identities with extremists. Rowatt has published numerous articles, including “Religion and prejudice revisited: In-group favoritism, out-group derogation, or both?” published in 2012 in Psychology of Religion and Spirituality®. They are to be put to death; their blood will be on their own heads, Personal religious orientation and prejudice, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Enemies of freedom: Understanding right-wing authoritarianism, Authoritarianism, religious fundamentalism, quest, and prejudice, The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality, Religion's evolutionary landscape: Counterintuition, commitment, compassion, communion, Mindblindness: An essay on autism and theory of mind, Exploring the natural foundations of religion, Conceptualizing a nonnatural entity: Anthropomorphism in God concepts, Spreading non-natural concepts: The role of intuitive conceptual structures in memory and transmission of cultural materials, Homonegative Christians: Loving the sinner but hating the sin, Religion and the individual: A social-psychological perspective, The religious experience: A social-psychological perspective, “O Lord … You perceive my thoughts from afar”: Recursiveness and the evolution of supernatural agency, Religious fundamentalism and limited prosociality as a function of the target, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Religion explained: The evolutionary origins of religious thought, Religious thought and behaviour as by-products of brain function, The role of prejudice and the need for closure in religious fundamentalism, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, To love or hate thy neighbor: The role of authoritarianism and traditionalism in explaining the link between fundamentalism and racial prejudice, The coevolution of parochial altruism and war, Different emotional reactions to different groups: A sociofunctional threat-based approach to “prejudice.”, Predicting policy attitudes from general prejudice versus specific intergroup emotions, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Religion for atheists: A non-believer's guide to the uses of religion, A dual-process cognitive-motivational theory of ideology and prejudice, Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, The psychological bases of ideology and prejudice: Testing a dual process model, Differential effects of right wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation on outgroup attitudes and their mediation by threat from and competitiveness to outgroups, Right wing authoritarianism, social dominance orientation and the dimensions of generalized prejudice, Personality, ideology, prejudice, and politics: A dual-process motivational model, Atheists as “other”: Moral boundaries and cultural membership in American society, Third-party attitudes toward sibling incest: Evidence for Westermarck's hypotheses, Religiousness, religious orientation, and attitudes towards gays and lesbians, Development and neurophysiology of mentalizing, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, Religion, personality, and social behavior, Perceiving minds and gods: How mind perception enables, constrains, and is triggered by belief in gods, Everything is permitted? 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