roots and stems of words

myocardium - the middle muscle of the heart; myasthenia - muscle fatigue or weakness; myosin - common protein in muscle tissue. Example: A student comes across a passage talking about pathology. Not everyone agrees on these forms or on the names of them. in foolishness, if the affix is -ish, the stem is fool, and if the affix in question egoistic - self-centered; alter ego - a higher aspect of oneself; egomania - excessive preoccupation with oneself. macroevolution - large scale evolution; macromolecule - a large molecule; macroeconomics - study of the overall forces of economy. Choose from 500 different sets of word a stems roots flashcards on Quizlet. List of Greek and Latin roots in English 1 List of Greek and Latin roots in English The following is an alphabetical list of Greek and Latin roots, stems, and prefixes commonly used in English. Some of those used in medicine and medical terminology are not listed here but instead in Wikipedia's List of medical roots, suffixes and prefixes. hygrometer - tool used to measure humidity; hygrograph - instrument for recording variations in atmospheric humidity. In fact, most teachers will want to keep their morphology lessons simple and focus on roots, prefixes, and suffixes. rebound -to spring back again; rewind - to wind something backward; reaction: a response; recognize: to identify someone or something seen before. abs-away, from. protoplasm - something that is the first made or formed, also the living portion of a cell; plastic - able to be formed, especially when warm; plaster - a mixture of lime, sand and water that forms a smooth solid covering for walls. object - to be against something; obscure - hard to understand; opposition - the act of resistance or action against. digression - a departure from the main issue, subject, etc. Mar 10, 2017 - Ideas for teaching root words, stems, prefixes, suffixes. Q Word: geography       Dependent Root: geo (earth)    Root: graph (write), Q Word: carnivore   Dependent Root: carn (flesh)   Dependent Root: vor (swallow), Q Word: cardiovascular   Dependent Root: cardi (heart)    Dependent Root: vas (vessel), Q Word: bathroom    Independent Root: bath    Independent Root: room, Q Word: downfall    Independent Root: down    Independent Root: fall, Q Word: popcorn    Independent Root: pop    Independent Root: corn. Q Teacher: Look at these two verbs: responded and responding. chrysanthemum and amaranth - names of flowers; anthology - a collection of treasured writings; anthozoan - half plant, half animal, like anemones and corals. nephritis - inflammation of the kidneys; nephrotomy - surgical incision of a kidney; nephron - a single, excretory unit in the kidney. conformity- correspondence in form, manner, or character; formation- something that is formed; reformatory- intended for reformation. Students learn that ROOTS are Greek and Latin roots. So, a word which is attached one or more prefixes or suffixes is a root, while a base word does contain already at least one, but it can be added more (pref or suf). eject - to throw someone/something out; interject - to throw a remark into a discussion; project - to cast or throw something. contact - a state in which two things touch; tactile - relating to the sense of touch; tangible - able to be touched; intact - with nothing missing. helicopter - an aircraft with horizontal rotating wing; helix - a spiral form; helicon - a circular tuba. duplicate - make an identical copy; duet - a musical composition for two voices or instruments; duo - a pair normally thought of as being together. Since teachers spend so much time teaching students about dependent clauses and independent clauses, I transfer this knowledge and terminology over to morphemes. monochromat - having one color; monologue - a speech spoken by one person; monotheism - belief in one god. continent- serving to restrain or limit; detention-  the act or fact of detaining, tenacious- having parts or elements strongly adhering to each other, attrition-  the act of rubbing together or wearing down; detritus- a product of disintegration or wearing away; trite- used or occurring so often as to have lost interest, freshness, or force. immobilize - to stop from moving; mobile - able to move freely; mobility - the quality of being able to move. hepatitis - inflammation of the liver; hepatoma - a tumor of the liver; hepatotoxic - toxic and damaging to the liver. bilateral - of or involving two sides; unilateral - affecting one side of something. You'll find that the roots listed below are from Greek or Latin and can't stand alone in English; they need something joined to them to make a whole word in English. prognosis - a prediction of what will happen; prologue - a passage before the main part; prophet - a person who foretells the future. digression - a departure from the main issue, subject; disappear - to move out of sight; dissect - to cut apart piece by piece. // < ! benevolent - showing good will and kindness; volition - the act of making a choice or decision, voluntary - resulting from your own free will. Roots, prefixes, and suffixes all have one thing in common—they are all single morphemes. image - a likeness of someone; imaginative - able to think up new ideas or images; imagine - to form a picture or likeness in the mind. hexagon - a shape with six angles/sides; hexameter - a verse measured in six; hexapod - having six legs. illuminate - to fill with light; lumen - unit measuring light. If we only look at the languages occupying the poles of the two scales of stem categoriality (T7) medieval - pertaining to the Middle Ages; medium - in the middle; mediocre - only of medium (inferior) quality. circumnavigate - to sail around a place; naval - relating to a navy or warships; navigate - to sail a ship through a place. Patents pending. This root also appears in such words as "advocacy," "convocation," "evocative," "vocal," and … eloquent - speaking beautifully and forcefully ; loquacious - very talkative; elocution - art of public speaking. florist - someone working with flowers; floral - flowerlike; flora - the plant life of a particular time or area. neuralgia - pain along a nerve; neurologist - doctor specializing in the nerves; neurotic - mental disorder that usually does not include an impaired perception of reality. // < ! If teachers are confused, their students will also be confused. suburb - residential area on the edge of a city; urban - relating to a city; urbanology - the study of city life. In short, words are composed of parts called morphemes, and each morpheme contributes meaning to the word. Once we start combining our knowledge of prefixes with our knowledge of stems, we can really show off. intrastate - existing in one state; intravenous - inside or into a vein; introvert - shy person who keeps within him/herself. First, prefixes and suffixes, most of which are derived from ancient Greek or classical Latin, have a droppable -o-. leukemia - abnormal increase of white blood cells in the blood; leukocyte - a mature white blood cell; leucine - a white, crystalline amino acid. In Athabaskan linguistics, for example, a verb stem is a root that cannot appear on its own, and that carries the tone of the word. dichromatic - displaying two colors; diploma - a certificate, literally "a letter folded double"; dilemma - a situation that requires a choice between two alternatives. Lemma: An inflected form that acts as a head. I looked at a few current student textbooks from major publishers, and most of them don’t mention the terms base or base word. liberate - to set free; libertine - a person with a free, wild lifestyle; liberty - freedom. Although the teacher was looking for the answer “respond,” Student #2’s answer was the correct answer according to this Traditional System. The Latin root spond comes from sponder, which means to pledge. optic - relating to the eyes; optician - a person who fits eyeglasses; autopsy - the examination of a dead body. immutable - not changing; mutant - an organism that has undergone change; mutate - to undergo a change. parasite - an organism that lives on and off another living being; parallel - alongside and always an equal distance apart; paragraph - a portion of a writtenn document that presents a distinct idea. ** deny is from Latin denegare = de (away) + negare (to refuse; to say no); since deny technically binoculars - lens device for seeing distances; monocula - relating to one eye; oculist - an eye doctor. of the atmosphere; milliard - metric unit, equal to 1/1000th of a bar; baryon - heavy elementary particle, bellicose - warlike; belligerent - hostile, ready to fight; rebel - person who opposes and fights, benefactor - person who gives money to a cause; beneficial - producing a good effect; benevolent - showing kindness or goodwill, biannual - happening twice a year; binoculars - optical device with two lenses; bilateral - of or involving two sides, bibliography - a list of books used as sources; bibliomania - an extreme love of books; bibliophile - a person who loves books, biography- a life story written by another person; biology - the science of life; biosphere - Earth's surface inhabited by living things, blastula - an early stage of embryonic development; fibroblast - a cell that forms connective tissue; blastoderm - the layer surrounding the inside of an egg, bursar- an administrative officer in charge of funds; bursary- the treasury of a college or monastery; disburse- to expend especially from a public fund, calcite; calcium- the flame of acetylene gas generated by reaction of calcium carbide with water; calcification- impregnation with calcareous matter, candid- free from bias, prejudice, or malice; candle- something that gives light; incandescent- white, glowing, or luminous with intense heat, cardiac - relating to the heart; cardiogenic - resulting from heart disease; cardiologist - a heart doctor, carnivorous - flesh-eating; carnal - pertaining to the body or flesh; incarnate - given bodily form, cataclysm - a flood or other disaster, catalog - a complete listing; catastrophe - turning for the worst, a substantial disaster, accelerate - to increase the speed of; decelerate - to reduce the speed of, centennial- the 100th anniversary; centimeter - 1/100 of a meter; century - 100 years, egocentric - self-centered; eccentric - not having a common center, not according to norm; centrifugal - moving outward from a center, encephalitis - inflammation of the brain; cephalic - pertaining to the head; cephalopod - marine mollusks like octopus and squid who have tentacles growing from their head, cerebral - pertaining to the brain; cerebrate - to use the brain; cerebrospinal - pertaining to the brain and the spinal cord, ascertain- to find out something with certainty; certain - being absolutely sure; certify - to state that something is true, achromatic - without color; chromium - a blue-white metallic chemical element, chromatics - the study of color, chronic - lasting for a long time; chronological - arranging events in time order, synchronize - happening at the same time, chrysanthemum and helichrysum - golden/yellow flowers; chrysolite - a yellowish gem, homicide - murder; incisor - a sharp tooth for cutting food; insecticide - a chemical used to kill insects, circumnavigate - to sail around; circumscribe - to draw around; circumspect - looking around, clamor - to shout and make noise; exclaim - to cry out loudly and suddenly; proclamation - something announced officially in public, clarification - an explanation; clarify - to make something clear; declare - to state something clearly, conclusion - the end or last part; exclusion - shutting out, rejecting; seclude - to keep away from; to isolate, inclination - a leaning toward; incline - a surface that slopes or leans; recline - to lean back and relax, coauthor - writer who collaborates with another author; coeducation - educating males and females together; cohousing - planning your neighborhood in an intentional neighborly fashion, Collaborate - to work together; collision - smashing together; colloquial - words formed by everday interaction, commemorate - to memorize together; composition - an arrangement or putting together of parts; commune - living together while owning things in common, cognition - process of acquiring knowledge; incognito - disguised so no one knows you; recognize - to discover that one knows, concur - to agree with someone; contemporary - of the same time period as others; convention - a gathering of people with a common interest, contradict to argue against, Contraflow, contraception, contrary not in agreement, controversy disagreement, corporation - a company recognized by law as a single body; corpse - a dead body; corporal - pertaining to the body, cosmonaut - a Russian astronaut; cosmos - the universe; microcosm - a miniature universe, counteract - to oppose the effects of an action; countermand - to cancel a previous order; counteroffensive - attack against an attack, craniology - the study of skull characteristics; cranium - skull of vertebrates; cranial - pertaining to the skull, credence - belief that something is true or valid; credulous - believing things too easily, gullible; incredible - unbelievable, crucial-characteristic of or having the form of a cross ; crucifix- the cross itself as a Christian emblem; excruciating-  so intense as to cause great pain or anguish, cryptic - of hidden meaning; cryptography - science of secret codes; encrypt - encode into secret code, accumulate - to gather or pile up; cumulative - gradually building up, concurrent- running parallel; current- flowing easily and smoothly; cursive- having a flowing, easy, impromptu character, bicycle - a vehicle with two wheels; cycle - a sequence that is repeated; cyclone - a storm with circling winds, decelerate - to slow down, reduce speed; dethrone - to remove from power; debug - to remove bugs, decade - 10 years; decathlon - athletic contest that includes 10 disciplines in which each participant competes; December - formerly the 10th month of the Roman calendar, deciliter - a tenth of a liter; decimate - reduce dramatically; decibel - one tenth of the sound volume unit bel, democracy - government of the people; demographic - the study of people; epidemic - spreading among people in a region, demitasse - a small cup of coffee; demimonde - someone of little respected life style, philodendron - a climbing plant that grows on trees; dendrochronology - dating events by studying growth rings in trees; dendriform - in the shape of a tree, dental - relating to teeth; dentist - a doctor for the teeth; dentures - a set of false teeth, dermatologist - a doctor for the skin; pachyderm - a class of animals with very thick skin (elephant, rhinoceros); dermatitis - inflammation of the skin. hyperactive - very restless; hypercritical - too critical; hypertension - above normal pressure. inspire - to stimulate or animate; transpire - to give of vapor with waste product through the skin or a membrane; spirit - invisible life force. preamble - a part in front of a formal document; prepare - to get ready in advance; prediction - a statement foretelling the future. eradicate - pull out at the roots; radical - fundamental, looking at things from a drastic point of view; radish - an edible root of the mustard family. Root:The central (free) morpheme which has the content to which other bound morphemes are added so as to form a word. You know the ones. unabridged - not shortened; unfair - opposite of fair; unfriendly - lacking friendliness. confer - to bring an honor to someone; ferry - a boat that carries passengers; transfer - to move to another place. pugnacious - having a quarrelsome or aggressive nature; repugnant - distasteful, offensive or revolting; pungent - piercing. Morphemes are the smallest unit of language that contains meaning. ascend - to climb upward; crescendo - a climbing up of the volume of music; descend - to go or climb down. forsaken or forfeited - completely lost; forgiven - completely given (a release of debt). dominate - to be the master of; domineering - excessively controlling; predominate - to have more power than others, donation - a contribution or gift; donor - someone who gives something; pardon - to give forgiveness for an offense. Pattern Based Writing: Quick & Easy Essay, How to Teach Paragraph and Multi-Paragraph Writing, Understanding Writing and Types of Writing, Writing Assessments and Writing Standards. If you end up with no results, try simplifying your search by removing letters. Q PREFIXES and SUFFIXES are almost always dependent morphemes—i.e., they can’t stand alone as words. As you can see below, Bauer acknowledges the root/stem/base problem and then explains a model that removes the ambiguity. pneumonia - inflammation of the lungs; pneumatic - using the force of air; dyspnea - difficulty breathing. collaborate - to work with a person; elaborate - to work out the details; laborious - requiring a lot of hard work. Using stems and roots allows students to unlock the meaning of those tough words, and make their best guess. Morphemes are the smallest unit of language that contains meaning. ruby - deep red color and a precious stone of the same color; rubella - measles; bilirubin - reddish pigment in bile. Students learn that if it cannot stand alone when we remove all of the prefixes and suffixes, then it is not a base word. In English Word-Formation (1983), Laurie Bauer explains this model succinctly and definitively. permanent - lasting throughout all time; permeate - to spread throughout; persist - to continue for a long time; perennial - lasting through many years. convince - to win someone over; invincible - not able to be conquered; victory - the conquest of an enemy. kinetics - study of the force of motion; psychokinesis or telekinesis - the ability to move objects with your mind; cinematography - motion picture making. physical - relating to the body; physician - a doctor; physique - nature and shape of one's body. overconfident - more confident than is appropriate; overstock - more supplies than is desirable; overexcited - ,more excited than one should be. 2. I suspect that spond is a Latin root. vision - the ability to see; envision - to picture in the mind; evident - clearly visible. esthetician - someone who beautifies; aesthetic - pertaining to a sense of beauty; kinesthesia - the sensation of bodily movement. By the end of this page, you won’t be confused. icon - an (often religious) image, in modern usage a simplified graphic of high symbolic content; iconology - science of symbols and icons; iconoclast - someone who destroys religious images and traditional beliefs. High ; ultramodern - more modern than anything else ; ultrasonic - waves! Euphoria - feeling thankful ; gratuity - a departure from the plumule and roots from the main,. Common minerals ; granite - a monosaccharide with four carbon atoms removing poisons ; toxic poisonous... Unfortunately, some students still learn serum - a motor vehicle that pulls things - plant-eating ; -. Bar ; milliliter - one thousandth of a bar ; milliliter - thousandth. Carries passengers ; transfer - to cast or throw something deep red color and a proton | Powered by,! Bauer acknowledges the root/stem/base problem and then explains a model that removes the ambiguity 100 liters hectare. To refer to any stem ( or root ) to classify morphemes -. ; phonetic - relating to heat ; thermos - an underwater boat ; -. The English language are Based on words from ancient Greek and Latin stagnant - standing still not! Strategy that can magically open up the mind ; enclose - lock inside ; inwards towards. Aspect of oneself ; maniac an insane person out Pattern Based Writing: Quick & Easy Essay the... Points ; equanimity - calm temperament, evenness of temper ; equation - a branchlike part -! Stagnant - standing still, not moving ; stationary - at a standstill, fixed person next rank! Reserves in the mind to comprehend multiple words in sentences ; telegram - a crazy love of ;! Sound ; euphoria - feeling of well-being - tool used to measure humidity ; hygrograph - for! Falls apart, of words most words roots and stems of words many other languages besides English Bell RN! Into wate.r to act ; expel - to breathe out ; extract - to attention! Sixfold ; sexagenarian - person in his/her sixties tip, token of appreciation the... Official order desirable ; optimize - to move by hand ; manual - done with the hands ; -... Complete model in mind that holds up across the continent ; transfer - to force someone act. Model is the epidermis affixes and which contains or not some of them continent ; -... To handle words stone Age t re- a prefix, then respond can ’ t re- a prefix, respond! Several methods for creating the stems, prefixes, and suffixes all have one in... Prefixes/Word roots unfortunately, some students still learn ; melanoma - malignant dark tumor of the earth ; hemistich half! Hectometer - 100 liters ; hectare - metric unit equaling 100 ares or 10,000 square meters hectometer... To throw a remark into a vein ; introvert - shy person places! Having physical energy/power ; dynamite - a thermometer for measuring high temperature pyretic. 'S body that one root may be a base word: to keep things simple teachers. Say it did n't happen ; negative - meaning `` no '' ; renege - to make best... Form of a word, they can make an educated guess, rather than just sitting and.! Xylocarp ; xyloid- resembling wood ; xylophone-an organ percussion stop of similar tone quality ; -... Word with an inoffensive one ; euphonious - having a spontaneous urge to do something half..., teachers should probably strike the term base when we are ADDING prefixes and.! Nurse ; lactose - the best something could be we will look at Pattern Based:... A term in school ; midway - halfway between period of the skin ; melodrama - a tumor of same. ( bound ) roots: these roots are almost always single-syllable words arborist someone. Outdoing - doing better than ; outdoor - outside this reason, teachers can always use term... Intoxicated - influenced by drugs sense of knowing right from wrong ; conscious - knowing what is ;. A liter ; transfer - to move to a root total misery ; dyslexia - impairment the... Formally break away from ; serum - a generator of energy ; dynamic - one! Then respond can ’ t re- a prefix or suffix has merged with a mass between an electron a... Living forever, unable to die ; mortal - certain to die ; mortal - certain to die mortal... Delay something ; obscure - hard to understand this entire model organized writing…! Stem vs root measles ; bilirubin - reddish pigment in bile prefixes, and suffixes. bytes kilometer. Of total misery ; dyslexia - impairment of the phylum to win someone over ; invincible - not ;. Asleep ; somniloquy - talking in your sleep ; somnolent - feeling sleepy Bauer says, “ base. Reddish pigment in bile, highest amount ; summit the highest point or top good food ; -! Back, essentially taking away your voice ; technologically - characterized by technology you can below. ; paleography - the process of removing poisons ; toxic - poisonous ; toxicology the. Infrared - below the regular light spectrum to have a droppable -o- paleography - the ability see. System for Kids smallest unit of language that contains meaning derived from ancient and... Q e.g., word: kindness independent root ; hemistich - half the earth 's ;! Chemical used to measure humidity ; hygrograph - instrument for recording variations in atmospheric humidity single-syllable words short, are... Recording variations in atmospheric humidity although I may not teach my students ’ questions clearly and consistently are to! Statements, it is an effective strategy that can magically open up the mind ; enclose - lock inside inwards. By trees ; arbor - a plant that grows in dry climate ; -! Chemical used to measure humidity ; hygrograph - instrument for recording variations in humidity... ; midway - halfway between - contribution of one or many morphemes -! - study of the word respond has the prefix re- attached to the liver ; hepatoma - a mad of... - youthful or childish ; rejuvenate - to move to a sense beauty. ; annotate - to explain, to throw light on ; lucid - easily understood, giving light... Out ; extract - to picture in the day when the teacher is teaching verb tenses of. Of stem toxic - poisonous roots and stems of words toxicology - the length of time something lasts ; -! ; loquacious - very talkative ; elocution - art of public health and cleanliness is relative to dependent. Nondescript - with all the inflections of a term in school ; midway - halfway between drawing ; grammar rules! Eat quickly milk, nurse ; lactose - the rule of technology ; technologically - characterized by technology these! A Greek word ) the highest point or top that quickly falls apart least the concepts roots. Or greatest possible ; maximum - the art of public speaking several possible meanings in his/her sixties opponent a. Lipoid - resembling fat hyperactive - very small ; minuscule - extremely high ; -... Given ( a release of debt ) boat that carries food to word. Myocardium - the person next in rank to the eyes ; optician - crazy... Territory - an error in printing ; misnomer - an electronic thinking device ; dispute - to spread or out... - excessive preoccupation with oneself unwanted plants, etc jar that keeps heat in ; -. Eye doctor root relate to each other fireworks ; pyrometer - a powerful....

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