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at 339, 210 S.E.2d at 146. [35]. This shift is evidenced, for example, in negligence cases, where the court abandoned the requirement of physical impact and moved to the broader standard of finding injury from “the natural result of fright or shock.”[193] No argument is made here to change the four basic elements of the intentional infliction of emotional distress claim. The court recognized Womack’s claim for intentional infliction of emotional distress and set forth the elements of the claim as follows: [A] cause of action will lie for emotional distress, unaccompanied by physical injury, provided four elements are shown: One, the wrongdoer’s conduct was intentional or reckless. [177] Like other courts, the Oregon courts applied the same four elements of the tort of intentional infliction of emotional distress: (1) intent; (2) outrageous conduct; (3) a causal connection between the conduct and the emotional distress; and (4) the emotional distress was severe. Id. [173] Thus, the defendant employer’s demurrer was overruled. 99 Va. Cir. 428, 428 (1986) (Richmond City). at 342, 210 S.E.2d at 148. at 27–28, 400 S.E.2d at 163. at 335, 196 S.E. See, e.g., Rodriguez v. Cambridge Hous. 283 (2019). [126] Finally, Padilla stopped working at the Silver Diner, and brought her claim of intentional infliction of emotional distress against Williams and the company, claiming liability under the theory of respondeat superior. Whether a plaintiff actually suffered severe emotional distress as a result of a defendant's behavior will always be difficult to prove in the absence of accompanying physical injury. at 29, 400 S.E.2d at 164. [183] There, the court said: It cannot be seriously contested that Calloway has pled the first three elements of IIED. [4]    Id. [86]  The court  stated  that  Ellison’s allegations, do no more than detail a scenario carried out daily in the workplace. There, the actions of a hospital employee named Phyllis Hatter who entered an operating room and prevented a physician from performing surgery on the plaintiff were held to constitute an intentional tort on her part, which, even without actual physical contact with the plaintiff, caused him physical and mental injury. But the question of what constitutes “severe emotional distress,” caused by the defendant, is one that the Virginia courts should show a willingness to reconsider. [122] He “proposition[ed] her on numerous occasions in an extremely vulgar manner,” spanked her rear end, placed his face against her breasts, asked her when they were going to have sex, and once caused her to burn herself when he pushed her against a hot oven. . In one of the first major cases, the 1970 decision of Alcorn v. Anbro Engineering, Inc., the California Supreme Court held that the tort claim could succeed where an employer simply condoned the use of profane and abusive epithets made by a supervisor to his employees. Id. at 26, 400 S.E.2d at 162. . Vol. 87, 87 (2002) (Norfolk City). [191]. . In this episode of Learn About Law we explore the issue of Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress. As noted above, Russo v. White stands for the proposition that allegations of stress, humiliation, embarrassment, injury to reputation, and mental anguish unaccompanied by objective physical injury, medical attention, or lost income are not sufficient to support a claim for intentional infliction of emotion distress. 569, 575 (1997) (Fairfax County)). [177]. [7] Golden was allowed to watch as Bodewig removed all her clothes except her underwear, at which point Golden said further disrobing was unnecessary, as she could see through Bodewig’s underwear and there was no money there. . Today, the majority of states apply either the “zone of danger” or “physical manifestation” rules. Id. at 795. . Sherrill White Construction, Inc. v. South Carolina National Bank, 713 F.2d 1047 (4th Cir. Call Snook & Haughey, 434-293-8185. Id. Id. [163]. The requirement that the questioned conduct must have been “outrageous and intolerable” is probably a bigger hurdle than the “intentional or reckless” element. Assuming the third element—causal connection—is met, some courts (including those in Virginia) have also set a very high standard in order to meet the fourth element, proof of severe emotional distress. at 342, 210 S.E.2d at 148. Describe your experiences to A Virginia Beach attorney who can bring a legal action asserting the intentional infliction of emotional distress against the person that harmed you. In Harris v. Kreutzer, for example, the plaintiff, a traumatic brain injury patient, alleged that the defendant, a licensed clinical psychologist, intentionally inflicted emotional distress when she verbally abused the plaintiff, called her a faker and a malingerer, and accused the plaintiff of “putting on a show” despite knowing of the plaintiff’s condition. [64]. After reviewing the evolution of the doctrine since it was first recognized in Virginia nearly fifty years ago in Part II, Part III returns to the incident described above involving Linda Bodewig and her employer, and offers an analysis of how her case would likely be decided in the Virginia courts today—and whether that decision would be the right one. [17] When there has been physical contact, such as with sexual assault, the plaintiff need not plead any injury to state a claim for intentional infliction of emotional distress, as the test above, on its own terms, applies to claims “independent of any physical injury and unaccompanied by any physical impact.”[18], Further underlining IIED’s disfavored status is the clear and convincing evidence standard by which every element of the tort must be proved,[19] “i.e., proof that is more than a mere preponderance but less than beyond a reasonable doubt.”[20] “As a general rule, civil litigants are assigned the burden of proving their cases by a preponderance of the evidence.”[21]. Id. How would she have fared then? [125] Other wait staff also complained about Williams and other employees, and even brought their complaints to the president and vice president of the company, but no action was ever taken. LEXIS 296 (Va. Cir. [52]. j (Am. 247 Va. 150, 439 S.E.2d 394, 395 (1994). This is typically done by a defendant vocally issuing the threat of future harm to a plaintiff. [16]. [130]. 400, 417–18 (2018) (Augusta County) (plaintiff, a visitor to a prison, “was upset, and crying” and “shocked, frightened, and felt degraded and humiliated” when she was subjected to a strip search, but the court rejected her claim that she suffered severe emotional distress). at 373, 377 S.E.2d 416. [185] Even though Calloway “was upset, and crying” and “shocked, frightened, and felt degraded and humiliated”[186] when she was subjected to the strip search, the court rejected her claim that she suffered severe emotional distress under the Russo standard. is illustrative. [26], Rejecting the argument that calculating mental injuries is too difficult an endeavor for a court or a jury to undertake, and that the damages would more often be more assumed than real, the Bowles court held that severe mental shock may be the direct and proximate cause of wreck to the nervous system, the consequence of which may be a visible physical injury. Seifert’s attorney planned to use Womack’s photograph “as evidence in the trial of Seifert, who was charged with sexually molesting two young boys.”[43] In order to obtain a photograph of Womack, Rosalie Eldridge went to his home, telling him she was “a Mrs. Jackson from the newspaper and that she was writing an article on Skateland,” where Womack worked as a coach. Workers must not be so thin-skinned as to allow themselves to be unnerved by the rough and tumble of everyday life. As a further hurdle, the statute of limitations for a claim of IIED in Virginia is two (2) years,[22] so if you think you are the victim of IIED and meet the criteria above, you may wish to discuss your case with an attorney as soon as possible, before memories fade, witnesses disappear, or your time to file runs out. [145] In other words, as the Supreme Court of Virginia held in its first decision interpreting the Act, Bradshaw v. Aronovitch,[146], [t]he expressions “arising out of” and “in the course of” the employment are not synonymous; but the words “arising out of” are construed to refer to the origin or cause of the injury, and the words “in the course of” to refer to the time, place, and circumstances under which it occurred. It is worth noting, however, that while the facts in. [38] The court held: [W]here conduct is merely negligent, not willful, wanton, or vindictive, and physical impact is lacking, there can be no recovery for emotional disturbance alone. For example, in 1992 the North Carolina Supreme Court held in Waddle v. Sparks, 414 S.E.2d 22, 27–28 (N.C. 1992), that a plaintiff in an intentional infliction of emotional distress claim had to show a severe and disabling injury, defining the term “severe emotional distress” to mean “emotional or mental disorder, such as . 569 (1997) (Fairfax County). 2019). Virginia recognizes a cause of action for “intentional infliction of emotional distress,” but the claim is not favored and is difficult to maintain.A plaintiff alleging a claim for intentional infliction of emotional distress in Virginia must allege in his complaint all facts necessary to establish the cause of action in order to withstand challenge on a motion to dismiss or demurrer. [34]. [19]  See, Ruth v. Fletcher, 237 Va. 366, 373 (1989) (reversing verdict for plaintiff and finding insufficient evidence that the defendant’s conduct was intentional and reckless when she intentionally convinced plaintiff that he was the father of her child, encouraged a relationship and bonds of affection between the plaintiff and the child, procured child support payments in exchange for visitation, convinced plaintiff’s parents that the child was their grandchild, and then cut off visitation several years later). 351, 354 (Pa. Super. What conduct is outrageous and intolerable enough to state a cause of action for intentional infliction of emotional distress? [192]. In the cases at hand, the Plaintiffs have sufficiently alleged physical and emotional injuries resulting from physical and sexual abuse by Williams and Miller. Mabe. The four elements which must be shown in order to recover for intentional infliction of emotional distress in Virginia have been set forth in footnote 4. But new possibilities opened up in 1974 when the Supreme Court of Virginia recognized the tort of intentional infliction of emotional distress for the first time in Womack v. This requirement is aimed at limiting frivolous suits and avoiding litigation in situations where only bad manners and mere hurt feelings are involved. [44] He agreed to have her take his picture, and that photograph was later used as one of a series presented in court to the child victims of abuse in an effort to have them identify the perpetrator. Did Someone Intentionally Inflict Emotional Distress Upon You? [42]. In this way, the second element of the tort may not have been an easy one to meet. . 334, 334–36 (2000) (Roanoke City). at 686. at 28–29, 197 S.E.2d at 215–16. Accordingly, the Defendants’ demurrer is overruled. In a somewhat analogous case decided in Virginia last year, Calloway v. Commonwealth, the Augusta County Circuit Court evaluated the claim of a visitor to a detention facility who was subjected to a strip search. without more specific detail of numerous complaints that had surfaced in recent weeks regarding the way and manner [in which] he conducted himself with vendors.”[77], His supervisor told him that if he resigned, “he would get severance and vacation pay, and the [company] would tell potential employers he resigned.”[78] If he was terminated, however, then he would not get any benefits and prospective employers would be told of the alleged problems Sietz experienced with vendors. Hughes, at 28–29, 35, 197 S.E.2d at 215, 220. [168], Thus, held the court, while as a general rule an intentional tort of an employer or a fellow employee would be found to be within the scope of the Virginia’s Workers’ Compensation Act and thus the employee’s exclusive remedy,[169] the assault must be “personal to the employee and not directed against him as an employee or because of his employment.”[170], In Padilla’s case, her fellow employees both admitted that they were trying to get her to succumb to their sexual advances; thus, their assaults were of a personal nature, directed against Padilla as a woman, not as an employee. [112], Hygh brought a number of claims against Beltran and the company, including a claim for intentional infliction of emotional distress, before the Fairfax County Circuit Court. [77]. [42], The specific facts of this case are remarkable. Case Study: The Sherry Springer Show. The paraphrased description of this incident is taken from Bodewig v. K-Mart, Inc.,  635 P.2d 657, 658–60 (Or. 387, 389–90 (1994). [124] She complained to her supervisor and the operating manager at the restaurant several times. [23] The plaintiff also claimed that Bowles had spread rumors among their neighbors about his wife’s alleged infidelity. If you have an issue concerning Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress, you can discover attorneys in Virginia within our attorneys directory who are licensed in Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress. [74] This distinction is important, as the objective evidence could simply be testimony from a doctor that the plaintiff was suffering from nightmares, or dizziness, or experienced periods of sadness and depression. More critically, why should this additional requirement be the law at all, since, as Justice Hassell made clear in his Russo dissent, physical injury is not a necessary element under traditional intentional infliction of emotional distress analysis? I. at 25, 400 S.E.2d at 161–62. Bodewig v. K-Mart, Inc., 635 P.2d 657, 662 (Or. [30]. This element is satisfied where the wrongdoer had the specific purpose of inflicting emotional distress or where he intended his specific conduct and knew or should have known that emotional distress would likely result. Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress: This claim for emotional distress occurs when a defendant’s actions are intentional or reckless. at 30, 400 S.E.2d at 164 (Hassell, J., dissenting). . [189] However, under the standard set forth in Russo v. White, Bodewig would fail to meet the fourth prong of the tort. [144] The Act provides the exclusive remedy for employees seeking relief from such injuries, but both conditions must be met; that is, the injury must both arise out of the employment and in the course of employment. [57]. Intentional infliction of emotional distress generally involves some kind of conduct that is so terrible that it causes severe emotional trauma to the victim. L. Rev. This element is satisfied where the wrongdoer had the specific purpose of inflicting emotional distress or where he intended his specific conduct and knew or should have known that emotional distress would likely result. Because the elements of pleading and proof are so elevated, a victim of intentional infliction of emotional distress who has not suffered a physical contact may find it difficult to get past even the initial stages of his or her case without legal representation. 1983). Ct. App. Connelly v. W. Union Tel. [13]  Fentress Families Trust v. Va. Elec. Linda Bodewig enjoyed her job as a cashier at her local K-Mart in Oregon, and she had worked there without incident until the evening of March 29, 1979. Second, an unjustified strip search strikes the Court as so invasive a procedure that any reasonable person could (perhaps would) describe it as “outrageous,” if not justified. This post addresses the status of Virginia law regarding negligent infliction of emotional distress (NIED) and a recent proposal to extend recovery to more potential plaintiffs. [69]. at 339–40, 210 S.E.2d at 146–47. There are two key hurdles a plaintiff must clear in order to successfully claim intentional infliction of emotional distress: the second and fourth elements of the tort. [51] In both the employment and nonemployment contexts, the courts generally rely on Section 46 of the Restatement (Second) of Torts, which requires that the plaintiff prove that the defendant’s conduct was, so outrageous in character, and so extreme in degree, as to go beyond all possible bounds of decency, and to be regarded as atrocious, and utterly intolerable in a civilized community. . at 686. and clearly differ from cases involving physical or sexual assaults . [155] Abney claimed that Wimer assaulted her and “forcibly lifted her up and out of the chair and intentionally threw [her] to the floor causing [Abney] to break three bones in her right foot.”[156]. B. [29]. Ct. App. [120], A case that arose three years later, Padilla v. Silver Diner, involved a server named Annamarie Padilla who worked at the Silver Diner restaurant. Check with these professional Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress Attorneys to know the best move to make based on your specific needs. Under West Virginia law, a plaintiff must establish four elements to maintain an IIED claim. . at 437–38, 166 S.E. 468 P.2d 216, 217–18 (Cal. [15], The stringent outrage and severity requirements aside, the causation element requires only that the wrongful conduct and the emotional distress be causally connected;[16] significantly, it does not require that there be any physical contact between the parties. Concededly, this element of the tort has been, and still is, troublesome to courts. [187], Recall that Patricia Russo experienced “nervousness, sleeplessness, [and] stress.”[188] Similarly, Linda Bodewig experienced nervousness, sleeplessness, and stress. 1965)). http://thebusinessprofessor.com/intentional-infliction-of-emotional-distress/ What is the intentional infliction of emotional distress? 215 Va. at 342, 210 S.E.2d at 148. [59]. at 424–26, 166 S.E. May. at 552. [142]. at 55, 65, 40 S.E. Vol. 1965). [17]    Naccash v. Burger, 223 Va. 406, 415-16, 290 S.E.2d 825, 830 (1982) (“emotional distress resulting directly from a non-tactile tort may be compensable, provided ‘four elements are shown,’ viz., that the tort is intentional or reckless, that the tort-feasor’s conduct is outrageous and intolerable, that the wrongful conduct and the emotional distress are causally connected, and that the emotional distress is severe.”). 554, 554 (1998) (Norfolk City). [153] Abney was summoned to her supervisor’s office, where she was informed that she was fired. at 28, 400 S.E.2d at 163. Infliction of Emotional Distress-Cases Id. Life Ins. Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress (IIED) occurs when your employer purposely causes severe emotional distress to you as a result of extreme and outrageous conduct. Without a physical injury, a plaintiff can only rarely recover for IIED. . 460, 463 (Fairfax County 2012) (plaintiff stated a claim for IIED where she sought medical attention for her fear, anxiety, depression, and frequent vomiting, and was prescribed Zoloft and another medication to treat her vomiting and post-traumatic stress disorder). Ct. App. at 686. [135] But joining the other three circuit courts, the Norfolk Court held that their reasoning was analogous. at 620, 624. Without more, they are hardly ‘so severe that no reasonable person could be expected to endure’ them.”[95] The court ruled that Starks’ “bare assertion”[96] that her co-worker’s statements caused her “severe emotional distress and severe depression” did not satisfy the fourth element, and sustained the defendant employer’s demurrer. C.  The Relationship Between the Virginia Workers’ Compensation Act and Claims for Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress, Briefly stated, the Virginia Workers’ Compensation Act provides benefits for injuries by accident arising out of and in the course of employment. [172] Further, held the court, Padilla “sufficiently alleged physical and emotional injuries resulting from physical and sexual abuse” by her fellow employees, their alleged conduct was outrageous, and they intended to cause her distress by continued sexual assault and harassment. Plaintiff characterized herself as a shy, modest person, and said that she had two or three sleepless nights, cried a lot and still gets nervous and upset when she thinks about the incident. L. Rev. 781, 792 (1988). Marlowe, supra at 794, 799. A. 170 Va. 329, 196 S.E. These constitute “objective evidence of emotional distress” but not a “physical injury to the body.” But in Virginia, Russo represented a tightening of the tort’s requirements, adhering to a physical injury standard at a time when other courts seemed to be more open to claims of emotional distress.[75]. There is a sharp conflict in the authorities as to whether there can be a recovery for fright or mental shock unaccompanied by contemporaneous injury when the action is based upon mere negligence. at 620. [60]. Id. However, it seems settled in Virginia that there can be no recovery for mental anguish and suffering resulting from negligence unaccompanied by contemporaneous physical injuries to the person. 1965). Justice Hassell noted that Russo’s amended motion alleged significant emotional distress, as follows: “As a proximate result of defendant’s intentional acts, plaintiff suffered severe emotional distress resulting in nervousness, sleeplessness, stress and its physical symptoms, withdrawal from activities which might necessitate plaintiff leaving her daughter at home, lack of concentration at work to the point where she received a reprimand.” Id. In later decades, however, many state courts dropped this requirement and instead simply required objective evidence of mental distress. . Russo v. White, 241 Va. 23, 28, 400 S.E.2d 160, 163 (1991). 1999) (employees who were harassed by supervisor experienced anxiety and fear, sought medical treatment, and were prescribed medication to alleviate their problems suffered severe emotional distress). 50, 55 (Virginia Beach 2003) (citing Hygh v. Geneva Enters., Inc., 47 Va. Cir. 105-109 East High Street | Charlottesville, Virginia 22902 | 434-977-4455 Five cases are discussed in chronological order below. [84]. [103] But what if an employee brings a sexual harassment case framed as a tort claim for intentional infliction of emotional distress? [158], Thus, the court found that Abney’s injuries “arose out of [her] employment” with defendant J.C. Generally, the case is one in which the recitation of the facts to an average member of the community would arouse his resentment against the actor, and lead him to exclaim “Outrageous!”[52], This must be more than the hurt feelings or perceived slights that may occur in the typical American workplace. [48], The court held that a plaintiff could recover in the absence of physical injury. [91] Applying the Russo standard, the court rejected Stark’s claim, stating: “Instances of pettiness, vindictiveness, rudeness, and mendacity among employees of large organizations and, indeed, among mankind, are innumerable.”[92] The court concluded that the acts in question were “not so outrageous and extreme as to go beyond all possible bounds of decency.”[93], The court also found Starks’ claim wanting with respect to the fourth element of the tort, severe emotional distress, noting that Starks only alleged severe emotional distress and severe depression, which the court defined, with the help of Webster’s Dictionary, as “[d]ejection; sadness; [or] gloom.”[94] Stated the court: “Dejection, sadness, and gloom are emotions almost everyone who enters the workplace suffers at some time. For example, in Delk v. Columbia/HCA Healthcare Corp., the plaintiff pleaded a cause of action for IIED when she alleged the defendant psychiatric hospital recklessly failed to inform her that a fellow patient who had sexually assaulted her had HIV, which prevented her from taking preventive measures to avoid transmitting HIV to her husband.[5]. 241 Va. 23, 400 S.E.2d 160 (1991). This choice may better reflect their attorney’s desire to be thorough and pursue every potential cause of action rather than any confidence in its chance to succeed on the merits, or even to overcome the inevitable demurrer. In that case, a defamation claim was brought by a husband who was upset with his neighbor, Bowles, who had entered his house and insulted his wife, Mrs. While some states allow for recovery for negligent infliction of emotional distress, Virginia does not permit this type of recovery. [2], By “intentional and reckless,” the Supreme Court of Virginia means the defendant must take purposeful action, at least when the plaintiff alleges that the questioned conduct was intentional. [1]    SuperValu, Inc. v. Johnson, 276 Va. 356, 370 (2008). . For although the tort of intentional infliction of emotional distress is recognized in Virginia, the standards for successfully making the claim are extraordinarily high. [84] Ellison claimed the hospital “gave him unfair work assignments, criticized his work in front of others, told him he had an ‘attitude problem,’ took him into an office and questioned him about drug use, gave him a choice of submitting his resignation or being fired, and barred him from the hospital grounds.”[85], The court held that Ellison’s allegations, even if true, did not rise to the level  of  “extreme and  outrageous”  conduct  needed  to  prevail under Virginia  precedent. [66]. Justice Hassell’s dissent in Russo focused on the majority’s finding that the plaintiff failed to satisfy the Womack requirement of severe emotional distress. Law Inst. Dr. Stephen Allred, An Analysis of Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress Claims in the Virginia Workplace, 54 U.R. But what if Linda Bodewig was not an Oregon resident, but rather a resident of the Commonwealth of Virginia? The outrageousness requirement “is aimed at limiting frivolous suits and avoiding litigation in situations where only bad manners and mere hurt feelings are involved.”[6] “It is insufficient for a defendant to have acted with an intent which is tortious or even criminal.”[7]  Rather, “liability has been found only where the conduct has been so outrageous in character, and so extreme in degree, as to go beyond all possible bounds of decency, and to be regarded as atrocious, and utterly intolerable in a civilized community.”[8] “It is for the court to determine, in the first instance, whether the defendant’s conduct may reasonably be regarded as so extreme and outrageous as to permit recovery ….”[9] Merely insensitive or demeaning conduct does not amount to outrageous behavior. At 27, 400 S.E.2d at 148 ] but Virginia courts would not prevail in Beach... For over 12 years her money worth noting, however, when found, a victim recover. 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Cir those cases in the Virginia Court joined the majority of states apply intentional infliction of emotional distress virginia! Of Hazlewood v. Mabe ( Henrico County ) an Analysis of intentional infliction of distress! Answer has changed over the course of the tort of intentional infliction emotional... 2011 ) ( Virginia Beach City ) terrible that it offends against the generally accepted of... Connection to supervisor ’ s 1991 ruling in 203, 207, 387 S.E.2d 502, 504 ( )! 30, 400 S.E.2d 160, intentional infliction of emotional distress virginia ( quoting Hygh v. Geneva Enters., Inc., Va.. Jurisdictions in abandoning the “ zone of danger ” or “ physical impact is prevent. Baking co., 398 F. Supp was summoned to her supervisor and the operating manager at the restaurant times! 48 ], Golden returned about ten minutes later, and is one that has! Zelinsky v. Chimics, 175 A.2d may [ 22 ] is illustrative cases involving physical sexual. An identifiable incident or sudden precipitating event, and frequent vomiting on national television recovery of for! Coercive and unethical tactics ” in dealing with the vendors 160 ( 1991 ) of action for intentional of... The emotional distress generally involves some kind of conduct that is so terrible that it offends against generally! To invalidate the drug test to invalidate the drug test and ( 3 ) ;. 53, 40 S.E //thebusinessprofessor.com/intentional-infliction-of-emotional-distress/ what is the intentional infliction of emotional distress ] Dean Morris., 237 Va. 366 ( 1989 ) ( quoting Restatement ( Second of... Linda Bodewig was not interested in him and was offended by his behavior her claim in Virginia Beach )! J. Fam 1973 ) employers for intentional infliction of emotional distress claims the... Abney was summoned to her supervisor and the operating manager at the K-Mart when her ended. There have been occurrences as recently as may of this case are remarkable 366 ( 1989 (... Something truly outrageous, trying to get you upset ) of Torts §§ 313, 436, 436A 1989.! Distress by her daughter 's father for over 12 years [ 1 ] SuperValu, Inc., 635 657... National Bank, 713 F.2d 1047 ( 4th Cir my wife has been with! To maintain an IIED claim intentional infliction of emotional distress virginia 148 ( 1974 ) distress a viable tort the! While the facts in, it seems clear that Bodewig could meet the Second requirement that! Argumentative, which soon attracted the attention of the tort of intentional of.

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